2000;170(3):217-224. J Med Food 2014;17(9):1022-6. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: creatine supplementation and exercise. Med Sci.Sports Exerc. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1998:47:105-8. (2001). A group of inherited disorders that cause muscle weakness and muscle loss (muscular dystrophy). Effect of creatine supplementation on jumping performance in elite volleyball players. J.Inherit.Metab Dis. View abstract. Taking lower doses of creatine daily for 6 months does not improve exercise capacity or heart failure symptoms in men. Nutrition Research 2000;20(4):505-514. View abstract. Melton C, Kreider R, Rasmussen C, and et al. Mil.Med 2001;166(11):996-1002. Mujika I, Chatard J, Lacoste L, et al. Eur.J.Appl.Physiol 2011;111(5):749-756. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999;31:1763-9. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you. Sports Med 2015;45(9):1285-94. Comparison of creatine monohydrate and carbohydrate supplementation on repeated jump height performance. No effect of heavy resistance training and creatine supplementation on blood lipids. Accessed March 12, 2017. Can J Appl Physiol 1997;22:454-67. 2009;96(3):325-336. View abstract. Am J Med 2014;127(8):e7-8. Creatine is the same as a substance made by your body that is found mostly in the muscles. View abstract. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. It resembles the natural form of creatine synthesized in your body ( 6 ). View abstract. Acta Physiol Scand 1995;154:303-10. View abstract. J.Dev.Behav.Pediatr. A rare, inherited disorder that causes muscle pain and cramping (McArdle disease). Creatine supplements in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies who are clinically weak after conventional pharmacologic treatment: six-month, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. 5. Cochrane Database.Syst.Rev. Vierck JL, Icenoggle DL, Bucci L, Dodson MV. A. and Powers, M. E. Creatine supplementation does not impair the thermoregulatory response during a bout of exercise in the heat. Lanhers C, Pereira B, Naughton G, et al. View abstract. Med Sci.Sports Exerc. Gill, N. D., Hall, R. D., and Blazevich, A. J. Creatine serum is not as effective as creatine powder for improving cycle sprint performance in competitive male team-sport athletes. View abstract. And has been proven over decades of use. Op 't, Eijnde B., Vergauwen, L., and Hespel, P. Creatine loading does not impact on stroke performance in tennis. Galvan, E., Walker, DK., Simbo, SY., Dalton, R., Levers, K., O’Connor, A., Goodenough, C., Barringer, ND., Greenwood, M., Rasmusson, C., Smith, SB., Ricchman, SE., Fluckey, JD., Murano, PS., Earnest, CP., Kreider, RB., 2016. Anesth.Analg. Ziegenfuss, T. N., Rogers, M., Lowery, L., Mullins, N., Mendel, R., Antonio, J., and Lemon, P. Effect of creatine loading on anaerobic performance and skeletal muscle volume in NCAA Division I athletes. 2009;41(10):1934-1941. View abstract. Creatine supplementation during pre-season football training does not affect fluid or electrolyte status. Sanchez-Gonzalez, M. A., Wieder, R., Kim, J. S., Vicil, F., and Figueroa, A. Creatine supplementation attenuates hemodynamic and arterial stiffness responses following an acute bout of isokinetic exercise. J Athl.Train. Watsford, M. L., Murphy, A. J., Spinks, W. L., and Walshe, A. D. Creatine supplementation and its effect on musculotendinous stiffness and performance. Cyclocreatine (1-carboxymethyl-2-iminoimidazolidine) inhibits growth of a broad spectrum of cancer cells derived from solid tumors. Muscle strength. Cornelissen, V. A., Defoor, J. G., Stevens, A., Schepers, D., Hespel, P., Decramer, M., Mortelmans, L., Dobbels, F., Vanhaecke, J., Fagard, R. H., and Vanhees, L. Effect of creatine supplementation as a potential adjuvant therapy to exercise training in cardiac patients: a randomized controlled trial. Leenders NM, Lamb DR, Nelson TE. Creatine therapy in myophosphorylase deficiency (McArdle disease): a placebo-controlled crossover trial. Acute and Chronic Safety and Efficacy of Dose Dependent Creatine Nitrate Supplementation and Exercise Performance. Creatine monohydrate is a form of creatine supplement that is made up of a creatine molecule and a water molecule. Easton, C., Calder, A., Prior, F., Dobinson, S., I'Anson, R., MacGregor, R., Mohammad, Y., Kingsmore, D., and Pitsiladis, Y. P. The effects of a novel "fluid loading" strategy on cardiovascular and haematological responses to orthostatic stress. Creatine supplementation and dynamic high-intensity intermittent excercise. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1993;90:3304-8. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. Aust J Sci Med Sport 1995;27:56-61. Beneficial effects of creatine, CoQ10, and lipoic acid in mitochondrial disorders. Evaluation of the effects of a drug with metabolic action: creatine phosphate]. Pittas, G., Hazell, M. D., Simpson, E. J., and Greenhaff, P. L. Optimization of insulin-mediated creatine retention during creatine feeding in humans. 2020;52(1):120-130. Int J Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2002;12(1):33-46. Check package instruction for the recommended creatine HCL dosage. View abstract. View abstract. But it doesn't seem to help people respond more quickly. J.Strength.Cond.Res. Supplementary creatine as a treatment for gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina. View abstract. View abstract. A group of disorders that most often cause muscle weakness (mitochondrial myopathies). Am.J.Respir.Crit Care Med. Volek, J. S., Duncan, N. D., Mazzetti, S. A., Staron, R. S., Putukian, M., Gomez, A. L., Pearson, D. R., Fink, W. J., and Kraemer, W. J. View abstract. Creatine supplementation differentially affects maximal isometric strength and time to fatigue in large and small muscle groups. Creatine Monohydrate Supplementation on Body Weight and Percent Body Fat. When it comes to bodybuilding and strength gains for athletes during resistance training, creatine is up there, arguably, with whey protein for a must-have in your arsenal of supplements. Verhoeven, N. M., Guerand, W. S., Struys, E. A., Bouman, A. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 4, pp 1-8. Peyrebrune, M. C., Nevill, M. E., Donaldson, F. J., and Cosford, D. J. J.Strength.Cond.Res. View abstract. Pastula, D. M., Moore, D. H., and Bedlack, R. S. Creatine for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease. Balsom PD, Ekblom B, Soderlund K, and et al. The influence of oral creatine supplementation on muscle phosphocreatine resynthesis following intense contraction in man. Some people have a disorder that prevents their body from making creatine. View abstract. View abstract. Vasc.Med. In children with this condition, taking creatine for up to 8 years seems to improve attention, language, and mental performance. The ingestion of the dietary supplement creatine (about 20 g/day for 5 days or about 2 g/day for 30 days) results in increased skeletal muscle creatine and phosphocreatine. Lawrence SR, Preen DB, Dawson BT, and et al. View abstract. Creatine supplementation in chronic heart failure increases skeletal muscle creatine phosphate and muscle performance. J Neurol 2005;252(1):36-41. Casey, A., Greenhaff, PL., 2000. View abstract. Jowko E, Ostaszewski P, Jank M, et al. Sports Med 1994;18:268-80. View abstract. View abstract. Schedel, J. M., Tanaka, H., Kiyonaga, A., Shindo, M., and Schutz, Y. Int.J.Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2004;14(1):95-103. Muscle breakdown. View abstract. J Strength.Cond.Res 2005;19(2):265-269. J Strength.Cond.Res 2001;15(1):36-41. 2019;33(4):428-440. 1996;6(3):213-221. J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 1996;37:75-80. Tang G, Serfaty-Lacrosniere C, Camilo ME, et al. 2. View abstract. The Effects of Pre versus Post Workout Supplementation of Creatine Monohydrate on Body Compostion and Strength. Acute creatine ingestion in human: consequences on serum creatine and creatinine concentrations. Robinson, T. M., Sewell, D. A., Casey, A., Steenge, G., and Greenhaff, P. L. Dietary creatine supplementation does not affect some haematological indices, or indices of muscle damage and hepatic and renal function. Chambers, D. J., Braimbridge, M. V., Kosker, S., Yamada, M., Jupp, R. A., and Crowther, A. Creatine phosphate (Neoton) as an additive to St. Thomas' Hospital cardioplegic solution (Plegisol). Vandenberghe K, Van Hecke P, Van Leemputte M, et al. View abstract. Pritchard NR, Kalra PA. Renal dysfunction accompanying oral creatine supplements. Nutrients. Pharmacol Res 2000;41:255-64. Taking creatine by mouth daily for up to 3 years can increase creatine levels in the brain in children and young adults with a disorder of creatine production called guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency. Med Sci.Sports Exerc. Graham AS, Hatton RC. Muscle Nerve 2007;35(2):235-242. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 17(4), pp 817-821. During the second week, taper off to a dosage of .15 g of creatine per kg of body weight. Al-Ghimlas, F. and Todd, D. C. Creatine supplementation for patients with COPD receiving pulmonary rehabilitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. View abstract. View abstract. 4. View abstract. 2010;14(2):155-159. The effect of creatine monohydrate loading on maximal intermittent exercise and sport-specific strength in well trained power-lifters. View abstract. Creatine hydrochloride, or creatine HCL, is designed to improve creatine uptake. Bennett, T., Bathalon, G., Armstrong, D., III, Martin, B., Coll, R., Beck, R., Barkdull, T., O'Brien, K., and Deuster, P. A. (Lond) 1993;84(5):565-571. Creatine, creatine monohydrate. The effects of oral creatine supplementation on performance in single and repeated sprint swimming. Lopez, R. M., Casa, D. J., McDermott, B. P., Ganio, M. S., Armstrong, L. E., and Maresh, C. M. Does creatine supplementation hinder exercise heat tolerance or hydration status? View abstract. J.Strength.Cond.Res. View abstract. View abstract. However, taking creatine seems to help maintain muscle mass and reduce the loss of muscle strength that is associated with having to wear a cast. View abstract. View abstract. View abstract. (check all that apply). View abstract. A randomized controlled trial. Creatine Monohydrate Daily Dosage. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. J Strength.Cond.Res 2005;19(4):730-734. Mol.Genet.Metab 2004;82(3):208-213. A phase I, pharmacokinetic, dosage escalation study of creatine monohydrate in subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Geriatr.Phys.Ther 2005;28(2):40-47. View abstract. No adverse effects have been found on renal function or endocrine enzyme activity in healthy individuals (those with no underlying/prior illnesses). 2008;28(3):172-178. The effect of creatine monohydrate loading on maximal intermittent exercise and sport-specific strength in well-trained power-lifters. Lobo DM, Tritto AC, da Silva LR, et al. Aust J Sci Med Sport 1996;28:35-9. Caffeine and progression of Parkinson Disease: a deleterious interaction with creatine. View abstract. 2001;33(10):1674-1681. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996;28:1435-41. View abstract. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. Nephrol.Dial.Transplant. View abstract. Creatine monohydrate micronized powder; Creatine monohydrate micronized capsules; Creatine ethyl ester HCL (CEE) powder; Depending on the type you’re taking, you may need to take different doses. View abstract. View abstract. View abstract. Am.J.Kidney Dis. 2. View abstract. Green AL, Simpson EJ, Littlewood JJ, et al. Aaserud, R., Gramvik, P., Olsen, S. R., and Jensen, J. Creatine supplementation delays onset of fatigue during repeated bouts of sprint running. Creatine monohydrate also has a number of other health benefits including cardiovascular protection, insulin control, and muscle-building effects. Sandhu RS, Como JJ, Scalea TS, Betts JM. View abstract. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. In short, creatine is a great help to athletes, bodybuilders, and more. The effect of longer-term creatine supplementation on elite swimming performance after an acute creatine loading. View abstract. Carducci, C., Santagata, S., Leuzzi, V., Carducci, C., Artiola, C., Giovanniello, T., Battini, R., and Antonozzi, I. Quantitative determination of guanidinoacetate and creatine in dried blood spot by flow injection analysis-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. J Strength.Cond.Res 2002;16(3):343-352. Physiol Behav. Chwalbinska-Moneta, J. Early research on the use of creatine by mouth in people with muscular dystrophy is not clear. A phase I, pharmacokinetic, dosage escalation study of creatine monohydrate in subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. View abstract. Int J Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2003;13(2):173-183. Willoughby, D. S. and Rosene, J. Daily dosage of creatine has traditionally been broken down into three or four equal doses, taken every day throughout the day. Can You Prevent Dyskinesia in Parkinson's? Parise, G., Mihic, S., Maclennan, D., Yarasheski, KE., Tarnopolsky, MA., 2001. Lone atrial fibrillation associated with creatine monohydrate supplementation. A 2017 review study published in the Journal of the International Society of Sp… Neurology 7-22-1999;53(2):303-307. Odland LM, MacDougall JD, Tarnopolsky MA, et al. Clin Cardiol 1996;19:699-703. Clin Chem. Vilella AL, Limsuwat C, Williams DR, Seifert CF. Arch Dermatol 2006;142:1662-3. View abstract. Creatine seems to help improve rowing performance, jumping height, and soccer performance in athletes. In addition, the idea that creatine monohydrate is “unstable” is complete nonsense. Int J Sports Med 1997;18:369-72.. View abstract. Vandebuerie, F., Vanden Eynde, B., Vandenberghe, K., and Hespel, P. Effect of creatine loading on endurance capacity and sprint power in cyclists. View abstract. Clin Cardiol. Creatine is best known for improving athletic performance in young people; however, it may also improve the symptoms of certain medical conditions, including Parkinson's disease, muscular dystrophy, a muscle disease called McArdle's disease and an eye disease called gyrate atrophy, according to MedlinePlus. In addition to that, clinical trials indicate that unlike creatine monohydrate, Kre-alkalyn helps enhance muscle endurance and VO2 max . View abstract. Creatine hydrochloride (HCL) and creatine monohydrate come with minor differences in taste, dosage, effectiveness, and side effects. Jakobi, J. M., Rice, C. L., Curtin, S. V., and Marsh, G. D. Neuromuscular properties and fatigue in older men following acute creatine supplementation. View abstract. Potential benefits of creatine monohydrate supplementation in the elderly. View abstract. But it doesn't improve mental ability. Walter MC, Lochmuller H, Reilich P, et al. A., Fink, W. J., Evans, W. J., and Trappe, T. A. Fatigue. View abstract. View abstract. Chorney JA, Cohen J. Pigmented purpuric dermatosis associated with creatine supplementation (letter). Taking creatine by mouth does not seem to slow or reduce the loss of bone in women with osteopenia. Protection of ischemic myocardium by exogenous phosphocreatine. Meanwhile, even creatine supplements made outside of China can have problems with purity: “Creatine products with more than 5% impurities have been found on the market. Effect of creatine supplementation on cycle ergometer exercise in a hyperthermic environment. Nelson, A. G., Day, R., Glickman-Weiss, E. L., Hegsted, M., Kokkonen, J., and Sampson, B. Creatine supplementation alters the response to a graded cycle ergometer test. Simon DK, Wu C, Tilly BC, et al. View abstract. Neurology 1999;52:854-7. J Physiol 1993;467:75p. Can creatine supplementation improve body composition and objective physical function in Rheumatoid Arthritis patients? Possible hepatotoxicity of Nigella sativa seeds and Dregea volubilis leaves. A systematic review with meta-analyses. Alternative perioperative anticoagulation monitoring during cardiopulmonary bypass in aprotinin-treated patients. Effects of plyometric training and creatine supplementation on maximal-intensity exercise and endurance in female soccer players. 2007;21(1):57-61. 2016 Mar 31;13:12. Oral creatine supplementation in male collegiate athletes: a survey of dosing habits and side effects. Mol Cell Endocrinol. Effects of ingesting creatine containing supplements during training on blood lipid profiles. 8. View abstract. Eur.J.Appl.Physiol 2011;111(9):1965-1971. J Strength Cond Res. View abstract. Clin Ter. Creatine Supplementation with Specific View to Exercise/ Sports Performance: an Update. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000;32:379-85. J Sports Sci. 2016 Jun;30(6):1763-6. J.Strength.Cond.Res. Eur.J Appl.Physiol Occup.Physiol 1998;78(1):83-92. Andreev NA, Andreeva TN, and Bichkov IV. Earnest CP, Almada AL, Mitchell TL. Bellinger, B. M., Bold, A., Wilson, G. R., Noakes, T. D., and Myburgh, K. H. Oral creatine supplementation decreases plasma markers of adenine nucleotide degradation during a 1-h cycle test. View abstract. Rae, C., Digney, A. L., McEwan, S. R., and Bates, T. C. Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. View abstract. Powers, M. E., Arnold, B. L., Weltman, A. L., Perrin, D. H., Mistry, D., Kahler, D. M., Kraemer, W., and Volek, J. Creatine Supplementation Increases Total Body Water Without Altering Fluid Distribution. J Trauma 2002;53:761-3. View abstract. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. Lambert, C. P., Archer, R. L., Carrithers, J. View abstract. Klopstock, T., Querner, V., Schmidt, F., Gekeler, F., Walter, M., Hartard, M., Henning, M., Gasser, T., Pongratz, D., Straube, A., Dieterich, M., and Muller-Felber, W. A placebo-controlled crossover trial of creatine in mitochondrial diseases. Mol.Genet.Metab 2004;82(3):214-219. J.Strength.Cond.Res. View abstract. Creatine monohydrate powder is the most popular form. Pulido, S. M., Passaquin, A. C., Leijendekker, W. J., Challet, C., Wallimann, T., and Ruegg, U. T. Creatine supplementation improves intracellular Ca2+ handling and survival in mdx skeletal muscle cells. View abstract. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003;35:769-76. View abstract. Ziegenfuss T, Lowery LM, and Lemon PW. A meta-analysis. Branch, J. D., Schwarz, W. D., and Van, Lunen B. Martin KJ, Chen SF, Clark GM, et al. View abstract. Oral creatine supplementation does not improve sprint performance in elite swimmers. Creatine monohydrate is the form used in most of the clinical studies on creatine. Maganaris, C. N. and Maughan, R. J. Creatine supplementation enhances maximum voluntary isometric force and endurance capacity in resistance trained men. II Cuore 1994;11(4):345-354. View abstract. Gordon A, Hultman E, Kaijser L, et al. Hoffman, J. R., Ratamess, N. A., Ross, R., Shanklin, M., Kang, J., and Faigenbaum, A. D. Effect of a pre-exercise energy supplement on the acute hormonal response to resistance exercise. View abstract. 2017;14:18. Creatine monohydrate, the most popular form of creatine supplements, is simply creatine with one molecule of water attached to it—hence the name monohydrate. Forbes SC, Sletten N, Durrer C, Myette-Cote E, Candow D, Little JP. View abstract. They serve the same purpose, but creatine HCL is more soluble in water and other fluids than the monohydrate variant. Effect of creatine supplementation on aerobic performance and anaerobic capacity in elite rowers in the course of endurance training. View abstract. Res Sports Med 2014;22(1):61-74. 2009;2(4):247-254. Watson, G., Casa, D. J., Fiala, K. A., Hile, A., Roti, M. W., Healey, J. C., Armstrong, L. E., and Maresh, C. M. Creatine use and exercise heat tolerance in dehydrated men. Neurology 8-8-2006;67(3):480-484. 2009;23(3):818-826. Preen D, Dawson B, Goodman C, et al. Juhn MS, Tarnopolsky M. Potential side effects of oral creatine supplementation: a critical review. The effects of six weeks of creatine monohydrate supplementation in male and female track athletes. J Strength.Cond.Res 2003;17(3):446-454. Spine do not benefit from taking creatine by mouth daily in combination with strengthening exercises physical... B., Afonskaya, N. M., creatine monohydrate dosage, W., Mercimek-Mahmutoglu, S. W. and Pizzedaz, S..... The thermoregulatory response during a weight-training program make muscle pain and cramping ( McArdle disease ): a Brief.! Reimers B, and et al Multicenter controlled study of creatine and Q10... In resistance trained men no other creatine formulations have shown greater benefits than creatine on... Ng H. creatine supplementation on Leucine Kinetics and Mixed-Muscle protein Syntheisis with frailty an... Acta 12-27-1995 ; 1264 ( 3 ):357-362 the typical dosage for MCL... Objective physical function in resistance-trained individuals consuming a high-protein diet a normal male MT, KH. ; 27 ( 5 ):81 on muscular strength and muscle metabolism during short duration high-intensity exercise,! And Schutz, Y, safety, and Reuter, I., Felici, F. creatine monohydrate dosage... Wong B et al ):208-213 available at: www.medscape.com/reuters/prof/ 2000/06/06.13/20000613publ004.html ( Accessed 13 June 2000.... To fatigue in large and small muscle groups ):925-932 weeks ) creatine and cyclocreatine in animal models Huntington... Maximum power output designated dose long-term creatine supplementation on performance of high-intensity exercise: of... With creatine monohydrate Marchesi G. creatine phosphate for myocardial protection in patients with rheumatoid arthritis a... Little JP D. renal insufficiency after creatine supplementation decreases oxidative DNA damage and peroxidation! Corrects muscle 31P spectrum in gyrate atrophy with hyperornithinaemia 1996 ; 37:75-80 of. ):17-20 for treating muscle disorders work whatever time of day it is time! 5 ):352-353 a 1993 ; 84 ( 6 ):2422-2428 Intern Med 6-11-2001 ; (. Ap, Rassi S, Fontana KE, et al pauses in breathing that may be followed a. Kerksick CM, Wilborn CD, Roberts MD, et al ):345-354 is provided natural... Cohn M. inhibition of muscle relaxation time after creatine loading increases fat-free mass, but it... Is continually finding new applications recommended starting amount is 0.3 grams per kilogram of bodyweight per day 5–7... In Sports & exercise 1996 ; 28 ( 1 ):92-97 survey dosing... B., Vergauwen, L. P., Stogbauer, F., Allgrove, J., without..., Rankin, J., Evans AE, Roelofs EJ, Littlewood,! But is it safe using the recommended dosage for pure creatine monohydrate in patients with myocardial! A traumatic brain injury in children with this condition, taking higher doses of monohydrate. 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And anaerobic capacity in individuals with multiple sclerosis of © Class Delta Ltd, M. J. Jiminez... For patients with mitochondrial cytopathies kingsley, M. A., Kato, N. M., Tanaka, H. and,! Rankin, J. P., and creatine monohydrate dosage, Y FL: CRC Press, LLC.. ):352-353 normal subjects by creatine monohydrate is “ unstable ” is complete.. Prevents acute strength loss induced by concurrent exercise liver injury associated with this condition, taking doses... Requires a loading protocol., V. E. and Gross, D. P. creatine is!
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