The data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using GENSTAT (12th Edition)  and the means were separated with the least significant difference (LSD) approach at . Initial soil samples were taken as composite samples at a depth of 0–20 cm before treatments application to determine the initial physico-chemical status of the soil at the experimental site. The groundnut variety, Samnut 22 was obtained from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria and the Oboshie and Obolo were obtained from the Crop Research Institute of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR-CRI), Fumesua, Ghana. The production of peanut in the country contributes significantly to the economy. “The DAE has fixed targets of producing 12,168 tons of groundnut from 6,160 hectares of land for Rangpur agriculture region and 23,129 tons from 11,570 hectares for Dinajpur agriculture region in the division this time,” Moniruzzaman added. There was no interaction between the three factors, namely groundnut variety, phosphorus and inoculant on pod yield. Inoculation with BR 3267 produced the highest pod yield in all the three varieties with yields increasing from 13 to 40% compared to the uninoculated treatments with Samnut 22 giving the highest yield of 2013 kg ha−1 when the inoculation was with BR 3267 (Figure 2). Household Responsibility of Cultivation System in China has led to an increased production of pea… It is the number of days from planting to the time when 50% of the plants had flowered. However, China is the largest producer of groundnut and accounts for 37% of world production, followed by India with 22%. In 2016, the country consumed 17.3 million metric tons, translating to a consumption per capita of 12.11 kg against an estimated 13.45 kg. Peanut Consumption Charts Inoculation with BR 3267 produced the highest nodule dry weight in all the three varieties compared to those inoculated with USDA 3456 and the uninoculated varieties. December 18, 2020 This biannual report includes data on U.S. and global trade, production, consumption and stocks, as well as analysis of developments affecting world trade in dairy products. The cultivated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) probably originated in Bolivia at the base of the Andes (Krapovickas 1968) extending into north Argentina (Ramanatha Rao 1988). The soil samples were analysed for the following parameters: pH (H2O/soil 2 : 1), organic carbon (Walkley–Black), total N (Kjeldahl distillation), CEC (NH4OAc), available phosphorus (Bray-I), exchangeable K (NH4OAc), bulk density (3 × 100 cm3 metal cans per profile depth and replication) and particle size distribution (hydrometric method) [10, 11] (Table 1). Farmers are expanding groundnut farming every year after getting repeated bumper production and lucrative market prices in the last 12 years. Here are some points to consider: 1. India is the second largest producer of groundnuts in the world. for over 97% of world groundnut area and 95% of total production. In other parts of the world they are boiled, either in the shell or unshelled. Just like maize, groundnut is an early season crop hence it must be grown at the onset of rains. The plants were gently scooped up with a spade and the roots were washed on a sieve under a jet of tap water and then placed on a paper towel in the shade to air-dry. However, soils found in most groundnut-growing areas are inherently poor with deficiencies in most of the essential plant nutrients especially nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) . Increases in yield due to inoculation is evident in most research studies carried out around the world and even in areas where the yield increment is not obvious, inoculation may still have major benefits by enhancing seed N levels and N uptake by the plant . The combined use of inoculants and P fertilizers usually enhances nitrogen uptake by plants and this nitrogen helps in the vegetative growth of the plant which might have contributed to the higher haulm yield obtained in this study. The warm and temperate climate of the state greatly support the peanut production. Groundnut is mainly grown in the northern part of Nigeria, West Africa in large quantities compared to other regions of the country. The DAE officials said farmers have already completed sowing of groundnut seeds on over 9,000 hectares of land till Monday as the process continues in full swing amid excellent climatic conditions across the division. Both USDA 3456 and BR 3267 with 30 kg P ha−1 gave statistically similar high yields of 1805 kg ha−1 and 1757 kg ha−1 respectively. Obolo had the highest seed weight of 85.8 g with the lowest weight of 44.2 g obtained from Samnut 22 (Figure 4). … Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. Thus there should be about 2.6 to 2.8 g of groundnut protein available per capita per day in This is almost 21 per cent higher as compared to the previous year’s estimated production of 45.03 lt. The main Groundnut varieties produced in India are Kadiri-2, Kadiri-3, BG-1, BG-2, Kuber , GAUG-1, GAUG-10, PG-1 , T-28, T-64, Chandra, Chitra, Kaushal, Parkash, Amber etc. The United States is the third largest producer (2018), and exports about 20-25% of production. India, Nigeria, and the United States followed with about 6.8, 3, and 2.5 million metric tons each. The Department of Agricultural Extension (DAE) has fixed a record target of producing 35,397 tons of groundnut from 17,7930 hectares of land for all eight districts in Rangpur division during the current Rabi season. Vegetable oils are used principally for food (mostly as shortening, margarines, and salad and cooking oils) and in the manufacture of soap and other products. December 18, 2020. Positive interactions between rhizobium strain and P fertilizer were observed in this study. The interaction between variety and inoculant was significant and P main effect was also significant () with respect to pod load (i.e. The study found out that all the three groundnut varieties responded differently to both the rhizobium strains and the P fertilizer applied. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Moreover, the country is the largest producer of cassava in the world, with about 50 million metric tons annually from a cultivated area of about 3.7 million ha. In order to determine the average seed size/weight, about 100 pods were randomly selected per treatment, shelled and the seeds were mixed and from this number 100 seeds were picked and weighed to estimate the average seed size/weight. All the varieties were selected because of their high yielding potential, medium maturity and their availability in the region. Gujarat: Groundnut production estimated to be higher this Kharif season According to the First Advance Estimate of the Gujarat government, groundnut production in the state is likely to remain 54.64 lakh tonnes (lt) this Kharif season. Five plants were selected from each of the rows next to the two border rows giving a total of 10 plants. The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. The study observed a positive interaction between the rhizobium strains and P fertilizer. ... 35,397 tons of groundnut production target for Rangpur division. Data were recorded on days to 50% flowering, nodule number, nodule dry weight, pod load, pod yield, haulm weight and seed size (as 100-seed weight). Nodule dry weight was also influenced when P and rhizobium strains were applied together. Countries by peanut production. Specifically, the study was to determine the appropriate rhizobium strain to enhance nodulation, growth and grain yield of groundnut, to determine whether the response of groundnut to the rhizobium strains is variety-dependent and also to investigate the interactive effects of inoculation and phosphorus application on the above responses of the groundnut varieties. P fertilizer is required for plant growth and development as it helps in root development and also serves as energy source for the rhizobium which in turn may lead to increased nodule formation thereby enhancing N2 fixation. Farmer Abdur Rahman of Char Gjoneshyam village in Jatrapur union of Kurigram Sadar upazila said he has cultivated groundnut on one acre of land spending Tk18, 000 this year, to recoup the crop losses caused by recent floods. 2A Media Limited. Also,  observed that combined application of phosphorus at 45 kg P ha−1 plus rhizobium inoculants increased nodulation by 56% and recorded significant higher soybean grain yields. The variety main effect was significant () in terms of seed weight. The three groundnut varieties responded differently to the application of the inoculant strains. This is a critical aspect of groundnut production, because of the potential losses and disease infection that may occur at this time. Their work further revealed that combined application of 45 kg P ha−1 and rhizobium inoculant was more profitable than the application of only 45 kg P ha−1. Similarly, farmers Abdul Haque, Lokman Hossain, and Saiduzzaman, of Char Biswanath village in Kawnia upazila of Rangpur said they have cultivated groundnut on more char lands this year to recoup the crop losses they incurred during recent floods. Dairy Monthly Imports. World's peanut stats by total production, production per capita, harvasted area and yield. The addition of rhizobium inoculants helps boost the number of nodules per plant which in turn increases the potential of N2 fixation with the help of P fertilizer . Chemical composition: The chemical composition of groundnut is energy (Kj/100g) 240, water 5, carbohydrates 18, protein 28. Customers often buy the Java (white round shape) for hand to mouth consumption while the peanut butter factories choose bold & Tj depending on the process. Groundnut were sown in 20.09 million ha spread over 85 countries with the production of 22.59 million tonnes (t) and an average productivity of 1.12 t ha-1 (FAO 1989). Yield is forecast at a near record 3.82 metric tons per hectare (t/ha), up 1 percent from last month, unchanged from last year, and 4 … China grows more peanuts than anywhere else in the world. The trial was a split-split plot design with three replications. The data will be made available upon request via [email protected] It has been established that application of P fertilizer stimulates node and pod formation in legumes  so the 30 kg P ha−1 may have caused this increase via increased pod node formation. Moniruzzaman said farmers are expanding groundnut farming every year after getting repeated bumper production and lucrative market prices in the last 12 years. Influence of rhizobium strains on pod loads of three groundnut varieties. Phosphorus application also had a great influence on the number of pods produced by the groundnut varieties . In 2018, about 60% of the peanuts grown were made into peanut butter. In the year 2019, China was the biggest peanut producer with a production of 17.5 million metric tons. The results agree with the findings of  who reported that inoculating soybean with rhizobium produced a higher nodule dry weight than the uninoculated soybean variety. In order to obtain this, a 4 m2 area was marked in the middle of the plot and the progress of flowering was monitored till the date on which half of the number of plants within this area flowered and this date was recorded. Therefore, combining P and effective rhizobium strains would enhance N2 fixation and rapid growth of the groundnut plant which in turn would stimulate early flower production. Grasses with scattered trees are the dominant vegetation cover and the soil in the area was a sandy-loam ferric Luvisol. Begin lifting groundnuts when 40 to 50 % of the pods are mature. Farmers Nekkar Ali and Bachchu Mian of Char Nawani Para in the same upazila said they have cultivated groundnut on one acre and four acres of land respectively this season after getting bumper production and excellent prices in recent years. Inoculation of legumes with rhizobia generally triggers plant growth, development and yield and it is normally used as a substitute for mineral nitrogen fertilizer which is often costly . According to , P enhanced the efficiency of photosynthesis in plants and increased branch numbers and pods per plant thereby contributing to the yield of plants. Harvested area is estimated at 2.8 million hectares, up 2 percent from last month, 3 percent over last year, and 18 percent above the 5-year average. The combined application of 30 kg P ha−1 and BR 3267 produced the highest nodule number of 69 in Oboshie which was statistically similar to the nodule number produced by Samnut 22 fertilized with 30 kg P ha−1 (Table 3). As a result of conducting massive motivational activities by the DAE and other agri-related organisations, farmers are increasing cultivation of high yielding varieties of groundnut evolved by Bangladesh Agriculture Research Institute (BARI). The application of rhizobium inoculants and P fertilizer had great influence on all the three groundnut varieties as most of the variables measured were influenced by these treatments. However, the interactions between variety and inoculant and also between P and inoculant showed significance () with respect to pod yield. This notwithstanding,  reported that P is a limiting factor in plant nutrition as a result of the deficit of available soluble phosphate in the soil. Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important grain legume produced in northern Ghana. All inoculated P-fertilized plants flowered earlier than the plants without both P fertilizer and inoculation, with combined applications of BR 3267 and 30 kg P ha−1 reducing the days to 50% flowering by six days compared with the no P uninoculated plot (Table 2). The subplot treatments include three levels of P fertilizers (0 kg P ha−1, 15 kg P ha−1 and 30 kg P ha−1) and sub-subplot treatments comprised two inoculant strains (BR 3267 from Embrapa Agrobiologia, Brazil and USDA 3456 from Nairobi, Kenya) and no inoculant (control). Nigeria accounts for cassava production of up to 20 per cent of the world, about 34 per cent of Africa’s and about 46 per cent of West Africa’s. Nigeria is one of the countries of the world with a variety of oil seeds notably groundnut, oil palm, soybean and cotton seeds. Inoculating with rhizobium strains in combination with 30 kg P ha−1 produced yields that are much higher than inoculation with rhizobium without P fertilizer. Estimates. The results agree with the findings of  who reported that inoculating soybean with rhizobium reduced the days to 50% flowering compared to the uninoculated plots. Knoema is the most comprehensive source of global decision-making data in the world. This could be as a result of the fact that the rhizobium strain applied was effective and may have made more N available through N2 fixation thereby enhancing the overall nutrition of the plants which might have triggered the early reproductive processes of flowering. The country located in West Africa, Ghana is the land of groundnuts. Application of 30 kg P ha−1 increased the pod number by 38% compared to the 0 kg P ha−1 treatment (Figure 1). there are several Indian peanut varieties, including Java, Bold, TJ, Java Long, G20, K6, Mathadi, J24 and Western 44. Area Harvested (Million hectares) Yield (Metric tons per hectare) Production (Million metric tons) Change in Production From Last Year; Commodity Map of countries colored by their peanut production. Their farmers earn their great fortune by farming peanuts on massive land farms. There was no interaction effect on variety, phosphorus and inoculant together on days to 50% flowering but the interaction of variety and inoculant as well as the interaction of P fertilizer and inoculant were significant (). However, poor soil fertility and lack of improved varieties are the predominant production constraints groundnut farmers face in the region although plant breeders have contributed immensely through variety improvement to curb the situation. Phosphorus was applied in the form of triple superphosphate (46% P2O5) by side placement two weeks after sowing. World production of peanuts was approximately 45 million metric tons in 2017, with China being the world s largest producer. “The average rainfall for our area is 500mm/year, but we’ve … The country annually produces around 0.4 million metric tons of peanuts. P enhances photosynthetic activities of plants and also acts as an energy source for the rhizobium bacteria. The rhizobium activity and N2 fixation are reduced when the system lacks phosphorus (P) since P serves as energy source for the rhizobia and also stimulates early root growth and enhances the formation of lateral and fibrous root systems which are essential for nodule formation. The tender groundnut plants are growing fabulously currently both on the mainland and vast riverine char areas in all five districts of Rangpur agriculture region and three districts of Dinajpur agriculture region in the division. Each crop variety released has its own attributes and genetic make-up that the breeders focus on when developing it. There is therefore, the need to use systems’ internal resources such as biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) efficiently and judiciously use P fertilizers to enhance groundnut production. number of pods per plant). Despite the numerous benefits rhizobium inoculation brings to crop plants and agricultural soils, it is faced with unfavourable factors such as erratic rainfall, soil temperature and low-soil pH. Growth, Nodulation, and Yield Responses of Groundnut (, CSIR-Savanna Agricultural Research Institute, P. O. However, there were no significant effects () with regard to P main effect, inoculant main effect and their interactions. The rhizobia (bacteria) have the potential to infect the root, form nodules and symbiotically fix N2 in leguminous plants . Combined application of 30 kg P ha−1 and BR 3267 increased the nodule numbers in Obolo, Oboshie and Samnut 22 by 144%, 188% and 56%, respectively over their respective uninoculated plots. The mixture was then dried under shade for about 30 minutes after which the inoculated seeds were sown. 2020, Article ID 8691757, 7 pages, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8691757, 1CSIR-Savanna Agricultural Research Institute, P. O. This on-station experiment investigated nodulation and pod yield responses of three groundnut varieties, namely Obolo, Oboshie and Samnut 22 to inoculation with rhizobium inoculants of exotic strains, namely Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense (BR 3267) and USDA 3456 in combination with 0 kg P ha−1, 15 kg P ha−1 and 30 kg P ha−1. The present study is in agreement with this finding as the combined use of P and inoculants increased yields of the test groundnut varieties. In China, groundnuts are mainly grown in seven regions according to the ecological zoning. The interactive effects of variety and inoculant and that of P fertilizer and inoculant were significant () but the interaction of all the three factors was not significant (). Physical and chemical properties of the soil of the trial site at Nyankpala, northern Ghana. R. W. Payne, S. A. Harding, D. A. Murray et al., D. Osei, S. Lamptey, C. L. Ayisi, and A. Apraku, “Effects of rhizobium inoculants and growth stages on shoot biomass and yield of soybean (, A. S. Abdulameer, “Impact of rhizobial strains mixture, phosphorus and zinc applications in nodulation and yield of bean (, R. Badar, Z. Nisa, and S. Ibrahim, “Supplementation of P with rhizobia inoculants to improve growth of peanut plants,”, S. Lamptey, B. D. K. Ahiabor, S. Yeboah, and D. Osei, “Effect of rhizobium inoculants and reproductive growth stages on shoot biomass and yield of soybean (, M. A. Tarekegn and K. Kibret, “Effects of rhizobium, nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers on growth, nodulation, yield and yield attributes of soybean at Pawe Northwestern Ethiopia,”, B. R. Buttery, “Analysis of the growth of soybeans as affected by plant population and fertilizer,”, M. Turuko and A. Mohammed, “Effect of different phosphorus fertilizer rates on growth, dry matter yield and yield components of common bean (, P. A. Ndakidemi, F. D. Dakora, E. M. Nkonya, D. Ringo, and H. Mansoor, “Yield and economic benefits of common bean (, J. Y. Asibuo and H. K. Adu-Dapaah, “Groundnut variety released,” in, C. C. Zoundji, P. Houngnandan, M. H. Amidou, F. A. Kouelo, and F. Toukourou, “Inoculation and phosphorus application effects on soybean [. The production estimates for groundnuts in South Africa for the 2020 season has been revised downward by more than 16% due to the drought experienced during the past year in certain parts of the summer grain production regions, according to Luan van der Walt, Grain SA economist. Effect of phosphorus on pod loads of three groundnut varieties (the bars represent LSD at, Pod yield responses of three groundnut genotypes to rhizobium inoculation (the bars represent LSD at, Influence of combined application of rhizobium inoculant and P fertilizer on pod yield of groundnut (bars represent LSD at, Varietal effect of groundnut on seed weight (the bars represent LSD at. More than 25% of the groundnut area harvested in the world is in India followed by 20% in China. ADVERTISEMENTS: India is the largest producer of groundnut in the world (32% of world production). This was a decrease from the previous fiscal year. Acting Additional Director of the DAE for Rangpur region Agriculturist Md. The interaction of variety, P and inoculant with respect to haulm yield was significant () but all the three groundnut varieties responded differently to the application of P fertilizer and rhizobium inoculation. This monthly report includes information on U.S. and global imports of dairy products, including maximum quantities that can be imported under tariff-rate quota licensing. The nodules were then counted while still intact on the roots from the crown to the tip. Farmers have piled up their harvested groundnuts in a field of Harirampur upazila, Manikganj, Man Utd to host Liverpool in FA Cup fourth round, Uttara Finance takes 120 pages to justify its indiscretions. Box TL 52, Tamale, Ghana, N. Ahmad, M. Rahim, and U. Khan, “Evaluation of different varieties, seed rates and row spacing of groundnut, planted under agro-ecological conditions of Malakand division,”, M. M. Buri, R. N. Iassaka, F. Hedeto, and W. Toshiyuki, “Comparison of soil nutrient status of some rice growing environments in the major agro-ecological zones of Ghana,”, E. V. Tairo and P. A. Ndakidemi, “Possible benefits of rhizobial inoculation and phosphorus supplementation on nutrition, growth and economic sustainability in grain legumes,”, J. Kevin Vessey, “Benefits of inoculating legume crops with rhizobia in the northern Great Plains,”, G. Nadia, “Influence of molybdenum on groundnut production under different nitrogen levels,”, M. N. Uma and G. Sathiyavani, “Solubilization of phosphate by, G. W. Mmbaga, K. M. Mtei, and P. A. Ndakidemi, “Extrapolations on the use of rhizobium inoculants supplemented with phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) on growth and nutrition of legumes,”, B. Ahiabor, S. Lamptey, S. Yeboah, and V. Bahari, “Application of phosphorus fertilizer on soybean [(, M. A. Alua, K. Peprah, and G. T. W. Achana, “Climate change implications for crop farming in Ghana’s semi-arid Guinea Savanna,”. There is therefore the need to use systems’ internal resources such as biological nitrogen fixation efficiently to enhance crop production. Dairy Monthly Imports Research work has shown that both the seeds of Obolo and Oboshie are genetically big with 100-seed weights of 80.8 g and 85.6 g, respectively . The combined application of the rhizobium strains and the P fertilizer increased the nodule dry weight by about 145% over the uninoculated (control) plot. The land was ploughed and harrowed with a tractor and manually ridged. It is a tropical area and has a mean daily temperature of 26°C and a unimodal rainfall pattern with a mean annual rainfall of 1100 mm . P fertilizer and rhizobium inoculant also had a significant interactive influence on the pod yield of groundnut. The main plot treatments were three groundnut varieties, namely Samnut 22, Obolo and Oboshie. Effect of combined application of P and rhizobium inoculant on haulm yields of three groundnut varieties. 70% of the nuts are produced in the provinces of Jiangsu, Shandong, Guangdong, and Henan. Peanut is an annual herbaceous plant growing 30 to 50 cm (12 to 20 in) tall. All Rights Reserved. Michael Asante, Benjamin Dzorgbenyui Kofi Ahiabor, Williams K. Atakora, "Growth, Nodulation, and Yield Responses of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) as Influenced by Combined Application of Rhizobium Inoculant and Phosphorus in the Guinea Savanna Zone of Ghana", International Journal of Agronomy, vol.
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